Kyriakos Souliotis, Anastasios Koutsovasilis, Georgia Vatheia, Christina Golna, Sofia Nikolaidi, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Kalliopi Kotsa, Theocharis Koufakis, Andreas Melidonis, Athanasia Papazafiropoulou, Nikolaos Tentolouris, Evangelia Siami, Alexios Sotiropoulos

Background: Strict glycaemic control early in the treatment process has been shown to reduce the occurrence of micro- and macro- vascular complications of diabetes in the long-term. Thus, treatment guidelines advise early intensification of treatment to achieve glycaemic control goals. However, evidence in Greece suggests that, despite guideline recommendations, glycaemic control among patients with T2DM remains challenging. This study presents the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with T2DM in Greece using data from an electronic registry designed specifically for this treatment category and investigates the factors that are independently associated with glycaemic control.

Methods: This is a multi-center, observational, cross-sectional study to investigate epidemiological and clinical factors affecting glycaemic control among patients with T2DM in Greece. Data was collected via a web-based disease registry, the Diabetes Registry, which operated from January 1st to December 31st, 2017. Five large specialized diabetes centers operating in Greek hospitals participated in the study.

Results: Data for 1141 patients were retrieved (aged 63.02 ± 12.65 years, 56.9% male). Glycaemic control (Hb1Ac < 7%) was not achieved in 57.1% of patients. Factors independently associated with poor glycaemic control were: family history of diabetes [OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06-2.23], BMI score between 25 to 30 [OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.05-4.13] or over 30 [OR: 2.12, 95% CI 1.12-4.07], elevated LDL levels [OR: 1.53, 95% 1.06-2.21] and low HDL levels [OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.44-3.12]. Lastly, use of injectable antidiabetic agents (in monotherapy or in combination) was less likely to be associated with poor glycaemic control versus treatment with combination of oral and injectable agents [OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.24-1.01]. This association was found to be marginally statistically significant.

Conclusions: Inadequate lipid control, family history of diabetes and presence of obesity (ΒΜΙ ≥ 30 kg/m2) were associated with poor glycaemic control among study sample, whereas use of injectable antidiabetic agents was less likely to be associated with poor glycaemic control. These findings indicate how complex optimal glycaemic control is, highlighting the need for tailored interventions in high-risk subpopulations with T2DM.

BMC Endocrine Disorders, 2020