Grammatikaki Stmatidi, Katifelis Hector, Farooqi Ammad Ahmad, Stravodimos Konstantinos, Karamouzis Michalis V., Souliotis Kyriakos, Varvaras Dimitrios & Gazouli Maria

Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents a heterogenous group of cancers with complex genetic background and histological varieties, which require various clinical therapies. Clear cell RCC represents the most common form of RCC that accounts for 3 out of 4 RCC cases. Screening methods for RCC lack sensitivity and specificity, and thus biomarkers that will allow early diagnosis are crucial. The impact of epigenetics in the development and progression of cancer, including RCC, is significant. Noncoding RNAs, histone modifications and DNA methylation represent fundamental epigenetic mechanisms and have been proved to be promising biomarkers. MicroRNAs have advantageous properties that facilitate early diagnosis of RCC, while their expression profiles have been assessed in renal cancer samples (tissue, blood, and urine). Current literature reports the up-regulation of mir122, mir1271 and mir15b in RCC specimens, which induces cell proliferation via FOXP-1 and PTEN genes. However, it should be noted that conflicting results are found in urine and serum patient samples. Moreover, promoters of at least 200 genes are methylated in renal cancers leading to epigenetic dysregulation. In this review, we analyze the vast plethora of studies that have evaluated the role of epigenetic mechanisms in RCC patients and their clinical importance.

In vivo, 37(1), 1–10, 2023 DOI: